A supplement is something that is used to fulfil deficiency of certain substance in body while dietary supplements are defined as foods or drinks which are used either to overcome the deficiency of certain substances in body or to help health and treat illness. PAGG is among the most commonly used weigh losing dietry supplements which contains Policosonal, ALA, Aged Garlic Extract and Green Tea Extract. A synergy between components of PAGG is observed so when taken combinely fat burning and weight losing properties are enhanced however; this effect still lack clinical evidance. Individual effects of components of PAGG are:
Policosanol is commonly used to normalize cholesterol levels by lowering total and LDL Cholesterol while raising HDL Cholesterol.1, 2 It also has antiplatelet activity3 as well as it inhibits lipoprotien oxidation.4 Because of these mechanisms policosanol is effectively used for the treatment of conditions that affect the health of the heart and blood vessels. These conditions include high cholesterol, leg pain due to poor circulation (intermittent claudication), narrowing of the blood vessels that serve the heart, high Blood Pressure, coronary Heart Disease, stroke and heart attack.
ALPHA LIPOIC ACID
Alpha-lipoic acid is an antioxidant and is commonly used as anti-aging agent.5 It is one of the most over-the-counter sold supplements in USA. The common uses of alpha lipoic acid include treatment of diabetes6 and nerve-related symptoms of diabetes including burning, pain, and numbness in the legs and arms7. It has also been successfully used to treat various other diseaseswhich include memory loss8, chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS)9, HIV/AIDS10, 11, cancer12, liver disease13, diseases of the heart, blood and blood vessels14 and Lyme disease.15 various researches has proved the benefacial effects of alpha lipoic acid on eye-related disorders16, 17 (damage to the retina, cataracts, glaucoma and Wilson’s disease.18
GREEN TEA EXTRACT (65% EGCG)
Green tea is the second most consumed beverage in the world and now days its use as dietary supplement is also increasing. Green tea is prepared by picking leaves from tree, lightly steaming and allowing them to dry. The active constituents of green tea are a family of polyphenols (catechins) and flavonols, which possess potent antioxidant activity.19 Due to its anti oxidant and lipid lowering properties it has effectively been used for the treatment of a large number of cardiovascular diseases which include heart disease and endothelial function and atherosclerosis.20 Green tea extract also has proven efficacy in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases e.g Alzheimer’s disease, Cognitive decline, Huntington’s disease and Parkinsonism.21 green tea extract is known to shrink cancer cells and preventing them to spread to other lymph nodes, tissues and organs.22, 23 Among the types of Cancer that may be suppressed by green tea extracts are hormone related cancers, ovarian cancer, breast cancer and lung cancer.24, 25 Other cancers which can be prevented by green tea extract include Leukemia, Prostate cancer, Brain Tumors in Children, Gallstones and Biliary Tract Cancers, Colorectal Cancer and Bladder Cancer.26 It mimics the role of insulin and cause decrease in blood sugar level, lipid levels and caloric levels.27 It also prevents osteoporosis, periodontal diseases and protects the liver from bad effects of alcohol.28
Garlic has been used for treatment of many disorders since early 1800BC and now it is also being used as dietary supplement. Garlic is widely known as “Russian penicillin”, 29 because Russian physicians have used it for long times to treat respiratory disorders, giving children with whooping cough garlic ingredients via inhalation. It has also been used by Russians for flu, sore throats, and mouth sores. Aged Garlic Extract and some of its constituents may reduce cholesterol, thin the blood, protect the body from oxidants, and increase the activity of cells in the body which maintain general well-being during cold and flu season, protect the body from radiation exposure, and destroy tumour cells based on some studies. 30, 31 Garlic extracts may exhibit some antifungal activity in vivo but they are probably of limited use in the treatment of systemic infections.32 Garlic also has the ability of lowering blood sugar levels.33, 34, 35 Garlic can also lower blood lipids levels, such as the “bad” (LDL) cholesterol, the total cholesterol, and triglycerides.36 lotting of arteries, or thrombosis, can also be prevented with regular garlic intake, in addition to the inhibition of the process of platelet aggregation. 37
Garic also had positive effects in improving your immune system, your memory, your liver, and in preventing cancer.38-42 it also decreases fatigue and has been used in the treatment of canker sores and gum diseases.43
M.F McCarty. “Policosanol safely down-regulates HMG-CoA reductase – potential as a component of the Esselstyn regimen” Medical Hypotheses 2002 Sep; 59(3): 268-279
2. Castaño, G.; Fernández, L.; Mas, R. et al. “Effects of Addition of Policosanol to Omega-3 Fatty Acid Therapy on the Lipid Profile of Patients with Type II hypercholesterolaemia” Drugs in R&D 2005; 6(4): 207-219
3. D Carbajal, ML Arruzazabala, S Valdés et al. “Interaction policosanol-warfarin on bleeding time and thrombosis in rats” Pharmacological Research 1998 Aug; 38(2): 89-91
4. R Menéndez, V Fraga, AM Amor, RM González et al. “Oral administration of policosanol inhibits in vitro copper ion-induced rat lipoprotein peroxidation” Physiology & Behavior 1999 Aug; 67(1): 1-7
5. L Packer, EH Witt, HJ Tritschler. “Alpha-lipoic acid as a biological antioxidant” Free Radical Biology and Medicine 1995 Aug; 19(2): 227-250
6. S Jacob, P Ruus, R Hermann et al. “Oral administration of rac-[alpha]-lipoic acid modulates insulin sensitivity in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus: a placebo-controlled pilot trial” Free Radical Biology and Medicine 1999 Aug; 27 (3-4):309-314
7. L Packer, K Kraemer, G Rimbach. “Molecular aspects of lipoic acid in the prevention of diabetes complications” Nutrition 2001 Oct; 17(10): 888-895
8. K Hager, A Marahrens, M Kenklies et al. “Alpha-lipoic acid as a new treatment option for Azheimer type dementia” Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics 2001 Jun; 32(3): 275-282
9. Logan AC, Wong C. “Chronic fatigue syndrome: oxidative stress and dietary modifications.” Altern Med Rev. 2001 Oct; 6(5):450-9
10. L Packer, EH Witt, HJ Tritschler. “Alpha-lipoic acid as a biological antioxidant” Free Radical Biology and Medicine 1995 Aug; 19(2): 227-250
11. YJ Suzuki, BB Aggarwal, L Packer “α-Lipoic acid is a potent inhibitor of NF-κB activation in human T cells” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 1992 Dec; 189(3): 1709-1715
12. G Mantovani, A Macciò, G Melis et al. “Restoration of functional defects in peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from cancer patients by thiol antioxidants alpha‐lipoic acid and N‐acetyl cysteine” International Journal of Cancer 2000Jun; 86(6): 842-847
13. J Bustamante, JK Lodge, L Marcocci et al “α-Lipoic Acid in Liver Metabolism and Disease” Free Radical Biology and Medicine 1998 Apr; 24(6): 1023-1039
14. SD Wollin, PJ. H. Jones. “α-Lipoic Acid and Cardiovascular Disease” J. Nutr. 2003 Nov; 133(11): 3327-3330
15. DK Klinghardt. “Lyme disease: A Look Beyond Antibiotics” Bellevue, Pharmax, LLC, 2006
16. I Maitra, E Serbinova, H Trischler, L Packer. “α-lipoic acid prevents buthionine sulfoximine-induced cataract formation in newborn rats” Free Radical Biology and Medicine 1995 Apr; 18(4): 823-829
17. IG Obrosova, L Fathallah, DA Greene. “Early changes in lipid peroxidation and antioxidative defense in diabetic rat retina: effect of dl-α-lipoic acid” European Journal of Pharmacology 2000 Jun; 398(1): 139-146
18. L Packer, HJ Tritschler, K Wessel. “Neuroprotection by the Metabolic Antioxidant α-Lipoic Acid” Free Radical Biology and Medicine 1997; 22(1-2): 359-378
- A Komori, J Yatsunami, Sachiko Okabe et al. Anticarcinogenic Activity of Green Tea Polyphenols. Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol. 1993; 23 (3): 186-190.
- Kuriyama S., Shimazu T., Ohmori K., Kikuchi N., et al. Consumption and Mortality Due to Cardiovascular Disease, Cancer, and All Causes in Japan. JAMA. 2006; 296: 1255-1265.
- Ehrnhoefer DE, et al, Green tea (-)-epigallocatechin-gallate modulates early events in huntingting misfolding and reduces toxicity in Huntington’s disease models. Hum Mol Genet. 2006 Sep; 15
- Pisters KM, Newman RA, Coldman B, Shin DM, Khuri FR, Hong WK, Glisson BS, Lee JS. Phase I trial of oral green tea extract in adult patients with solid tumors. J Clin Oncol. 2001 Mar;19(6):1830-8
- Schmidt M, Schmitz HJ, Baumgart A, Guedon D et al. Toxicity of green tea extracts and their constituents in rat hepatocytes in primary culture. Food Chem Toxicol. 2005 Feb; 43(2):307-14.
- Zhou YD, Kim YP, Li XC, et al. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 activation by (-)-epicatechin gallate: potential adverse effects of cancer chemoprevention with high-dose green tea extracts. J Nat Prod. 2004 Dec; 67(12):2063-9.
- Inoue M, Tajima K, Mizutani M, et al. Regular consumption of green tea and the risk of breast cancer recurrence: follow-up study from the Hospital-based Epidemiologic Research Program at Aichi Cancer Center (HERPACC), Japan. Cancer Lett. 2001; 167(2):175-182.
- McLarty J, Bigelow RL, Smith M, Elmajian D, Ankem M, Cardelli JA. Tea polyphenols decrease serum levels of prostate-specific antigen, hepatocyte growth factor, and vascular endothelial growth factor in prostate cancer patients and inhibit production of hepatocyte growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor in vitro. Cancer Prev Res (Phila Pa). 2009; 2(7):673-82.
- T MacKenzie, L Leary, W B Brooks. The effect of an extract of green and black tea on glucose control in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus: double-blind randomized study. Metabolism 2007 Oct, 56(10): 1340-1344
- CH Chen, ML Ho, JK Chang, SH Hung et al. “Green tea catechin enhances osteogenesis in a bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell line” Osteoporosis International 2005; 16(12): 2039-2045
- L Shamseer, TL Charrois, S Vohra. “Complementary, holistic, and integrative medicine: Garlic” Pediatrics in Review 2006 Dec; 27(12)
- C Borek. Antioxidant Health Effects of Aged Garlic Extract. J. Nutr. 2001 Mar; 131(3):1010S-1015
- Ve Reeve, M Bosnic, E Rozinova. A garlic extract protects from ultraviolet b (280–320 nm) radiation-induced suppression of contact hypersensitivity. Photochemistry and Photobiology; 1993 Dec; 58(6): 813-817
- N Caporaso, S M Smith, R H Eng. Antifungal Activity in Human Urine and Serum After Ingestion of Garlic (Allium Sativum). Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1983 May; 23(5)
- Elkayam A, Mirelman D, et al. The Effects of Allicin and Enalapril in Fructose-Induced Hyperinsulinemic Hyperlipidemic Hypertensive Rats. Am J Hypertens 2001 Apr; 14(1)
- Morihara N, Hayama M, Fujii H. Aged garlic extract scavenges superoxide radicals. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2011 Mar; 66(1):17-21
- Nencini C, Menchiari A, Franchi GG, Micheli L. In vitro antioxidant activity of aged extracts of some Italian Allium species. Plant Foods Hum Nutr. 2011 Mar; 66(1):11-6
- Alder R, Lookinland S, Berry JA, et al. A systematic review of the effectiveness of garlic as an anti-hyperlipidemic agent. J Am Acad Nurse Pract. 2003; 15(3):120-129.
- Apitz-Castro R, Escalante J, Vargas R, et al. Ajoene, the antiplatelet principle of garlic, synergistically potentiates the antiaggregatory action of prostacyclin, forskolin, indomethacin, and dipyridamole on human platelets. Thromb Res. 1986; 42(3):303-311.
- Bailey C, Day C. Traditional plants medicine as treatments for diabetes. Diabetes Care. 1989; 12:553-564.
- Berthold HK, Sudhop T. Galic preparation for prevention of atherosclerosis. Curr Opin Lipidol. 1998; 9(6):565-569.
- Dorant E, van den Brandt PA, Goldbohm RA. Allium vegetable consumption, garlic supplement intake, and female breast carcinoma incidence. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 1995;33(2):163-170.
- Fleischauer AT, Arab L. Garlic and cancer: a critical review of the epidemiologic literature. J Nutr. 2001; 131:1032S-1040S.
- Fleischauer AT, Poole C, Arab L. Garlic consumption and cancer prevention: meta-analyses of colorectal and stomach cancers. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000; 72:1047-1052.
- XW Jiang, J Hu, FI Mian. “A new therapeutic candidate for oral aphthous ulcer: Allicin” Medical Hypotheses 2008 Dec; 71(6): 897-899